gardening is to get things started
ahead at the proper time, and yet
upon the thoroughness with which
this is done the success of the
garden must depend, in large
The reader may
remember that in a previous article
of accurately planning the work
ahead was emphasized
I mentioned there the check list used to make sure that everything would
be carried out, or started ahead at the proper time--as with the sowing
of seeds. The following garden operations, given month by month, will
serve not only as a timely reminder of things to be done, but as the
basis for such a check list. The importance of the preparations
in all matters of gardening, is of course obvious.
JANUARYProbably one of the good resolutions made with the New Year was a
better garden for the coming summer. The psychologists claim that the
only hope for resolutions is to nail them down at the start with an
action--that seems to have more effect in making an actual
impression on the brain. So start the good work along by sending at
once for several of the leading seed catalogs.
Make out a list of what you are going to want
this year, and then make your Planting Plan.Seeds. Order your seed. Do it now while the seed store'sstock is full; while he is not rushed; while there is ample time to
rectify mistakes if any occur.
Manures.Altogether too few amateur gardeners realize the great
importance of procuring early every pound of manures, of any kind, to
be had. It often may be had cheaply at this time of year, and by
composting, adding phosphate, and several turnings, if you have
any place under cover where it can be collected, you can double its
value before spring.
Frames.Even at this season of the year do not fail to air the
frames well on warm days.
Onions.It will not be too early, this month, to sow onions for
spring transplanting outside. Get a packet each of Prizetaker, Ailsa
Craig, Mammoth Silver-skin, or Gigantic Gibraltar.
Lettuce. Sow lettuce for spring crop under glass or in frames.
Fruit.This is a good month to prune grapes, currants,
gooseberries and peach trees, to avoid the rush that will come later.
Hotbeds.A little early for making them until after the 15th,
but get all your material ready--manure, selected and stacked; lumber
ready for any new ones; sash all in good repair.
Starting Seeds.First part of the month, earliest planting of
cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce should be made; and two to four weeks
later for main early crop. At this time also, beets and earliest celery.
Tools.Overhaul them all now; order repairs. Get new catalogs
and study new improvements and kinds you do not possess.
Poles and brush.Whether you use the old-fashioned sort (now
harder to obtain than they used to be) or make your "poles" and use
wire trellis for peas, attend to it now.
Fruit.Finish up last month's work, if not all done. Also
examine plum and cherry trees for black-knot.
Hotbeds.If not made last of February, should be made at once.
Some of the seed sown last month will be ready for transplanting and
going into the frames; also lettuce sown in January. Radish and carrot
(forcing varieties) may be sown in alternating rows. Give much more
air; water on bright mornings; be careful not to have them caught by
suddenly cold nights after a bright warm day.
Seed-sowing under glass. Last sowing of early cabbage and early
summer cabbages (like Succession), lettuce, rhubarb (for seedling
plants), cauliflower, radish, spinach, turnip, and early tomatoes;
towards last of month, late tomatoes and first of peppers, and eggplant.
Sweet peas often find a place in the vegetable garden; start a
few early, to set out later; they will do better than if started
outside. Start tomatoes for growing in frames. For early potatoes
sprout in sand.
Planting outside.If an early spring, and the ground is
sufficiently dry, sow onions, lettuce, beet, radish, (sweet peas),
smooth peas, early carrot, cabbage, leek, celery (main crop), and
turnip. Set out new beds of asparagus, rhubarb and sea-kale (be sure to
try a few plants of the latter). Manure and fork up old beds of above.
Fruit. Prune now, apple, plum and pear trees.
Now the rush is on! Plan your work, and work your plan. But do
not yield to the temptation to plant more than you can look out for
later on. Remember it is much easier to sow seeds than to pull out
The Frames.Air! water! and do not let the green plant-lice or
the white-fly get a ghost of a chance to start. Almost every day the
glass should be lifted entirely off. Care must be taken never to let
the soil or flats become dried out; toward the end of the month, if it
is bright and warm, begin watering towards evening instead of in early
morning, as you should have been doing through the winter. If proper
attention is given to ventilation and moisture, there will not be much
danger from the green plant-louse (aphis) and white-fly, but at the
first sign of one fight them to a finish. Use kerosene emulsion,
tobacco dust, tobacco preparations, or Aphine.
Seed sowing.Under glass: tomato, egg-plant and peppers. On sod:
corn, cucumbers, melons, early squash, lima beans.
Planting, outside. Onions, lettuce, beet, etc., if not put in
last month; also parsnip, salsify, parsley, wrinkled peas, endive.
Toward the end of this month (or first part of next) second plantings
of these. Set out plants of early cabbage (and the cabbage group)
lettuce, onion sets, sprouted potatoes, beets, etc.
In the Garden.Cultivate between rows of sowed crops; weed out
by hand just as soon as they are up enough to be seen; watch for cutworms
Fruit.Thin out all old blackberry canes, dewberry and raspberry
canes (if this was not done, as it should have been, directly after the
fruiting season last summer). Be ready for first spraying of earlyblossoming
trees. Set out new strawberry beds, small fruits and fruit
MAYKeep ahead of the weeds. This is the month when those warm,
south, driving rains often keep the ground too wet to work for days at
a time, and weeds grow by leaps and bounds. Woe betide the gardener
whose rows of sprouting onions, beets, carrots, etc., once become green
with wild turnip and other rapid-growing intruders. Clean cultivation
and slight hilling of plants set out are also essential.
The Frames.These will not need so much attention now, but care
must be taken to guard tender plants, such as tomatoes, egg-plant and
peppers, against sudden late frosts. The sash may be left off most of
the time. Water copiously and often.
Planting outside.First part of the month: early beans, early
corn, okra and late potatoes may be put in; and first tomatoes set out
--even if a few are lost--they are readily replaced. Finish setting out
cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower, beets, etc., from frames. Latter part of
month, if warm: corn, cucumbers, some of sods from frames and early
squash as traps where late crop is to be planted or set.
Fruit.Be on time with first sprayings of late-blossoming
fruits--apples, etc. Rub off from grape vines the shoots that are not
JUNEFrequent, shallow cultivation!
Firm seeds in dry soil. Plant wax beans, lima beans, pole beams,
melons, corn, etc., and successive crops of lettuce, radish, etc.
Top-dress growing crops that need special manure (such as nitrate of
soda on onions). Prune tomatoes, and cut out some foliage for extra
early tomatoes. Toward end of month set celery and late cabbage. Also
sow beans, beets, corn, etc., for early fall crops. Spray where
necessary. Allow asparagus to grow to tops.
Fruit.Attend to spraying fruit trees and currants and
gooseberries. Make pot-layers of strawberries for July setting.
JULYMaintain frequent, shallow cultivation. Set out late cabbage,
cauliflower, broccoli, leeks and celery. Sow beans, beets, corn, etc.,
for late fall crops. Irrigate where needed.
Fruit.Pinch back new canes of blackberry, dewberry and
raspberry. Rub off second crop of buds on grapes. Thin out if too many
bunches; also on plums, peaches and other fruit too thick, or touching.
Pot-layered strawberries may be set out.
AUGUSTKeep the garden clean from late weeds--especially purslane, the hotweather
weed pest, which should be always removed from the
garden and disposed of or rotted down.
Sow spinach, rutabaga turnip, bush beans and peas for last fall crop.
During first part of month, late celery may still be put out. Sow
lettuce for early fall crop, in frames. First lot of endive should be
tied up for blanching.
Fruit.Strawberries may be set, and pot-layered plants, if
wanted to bear a full crop the following season, should be put in.
Thin out and bag grapes.
Frames.Set in lettuce started in August. Sow radishes and
successive crop of lettuce. Cooler weather begins to tell on lateplanted
crops. Give cabbage, cauliflower, etc., deeper cultivation.
"Handle" celery wanted for early use.
Harvest and store onions. Get squash under cover before frost. From the
15th to 25th sow spinach, onions, borecole for wintering over. Sow down
thickly to rye all plots as fast as cleared of summer crops; or plow
heavy land in ridges. Attend to draining.
Fruit.Trees may be set. Procure barrels for storing fruit in
winter. At harvest time it is often impossible to get them at any
OCTOBERGet ready for winter. Blanch rest of endive. Bank celery, to be used
before Christmas, where it is. Gather tomatoes, melons, etc., to keep
as long as possible. Keep especially clean and well cultivated all
crops to be wintered over. Late in the month store cabbage and
cauliflower; also beets, carrots, and other root crops. Get boxes,
barrels, bins, sand or sphagnum moss ready beforehand, to save
time in packing.
Clean the garden; store poles, etc., worth keeping over; burn
everything else that will not rot; and compost everything that will.
Fruit.Harvest apples, etc. Pick winter pears just before hard
frosts, and store in dry dark place.
Frames.Make deep hotbeds for winter lettuce and radishes.
Construct frames for use next spring. See that vegetables in basement,
bins, and sheds are safe from freezing. Trench or store celery for
spring use. Take in balance of all root crops if any remain in the
ground, except, of course, parsnip and salsify for spring use. Put
rough manure on asparagus and rhubarb beds. Get mulch ready for
spinach, etc., to be wintered over, if they occupy exposed locations.
Fruit.Obtain marsh or salt hay for mulching strawberries. Cut
out old wood of cane-fruits--blackberries, etc., if not done after
gathering fruit. Look over fruit trees for borers.
DECEMBERCover celery stored last month, if trenched out-of-doors. Use only
light, loose material at first, gradually covering for winter. Put
mulch on spinach, etc.
Fruit.Mulch strawberries. Prune grape-vines; make first
application of winter sprays for fruit trees.
AND THENSet about procuring manures of all kinds from every available source.
Remember that anything which will rot will add to the value of
your manure pile. Muck, lime, old plastering, sods, weeds (earth and
all), street, stable and yard sweepings--all these and numerous others
will increase your garden successes of next year.